A Study Of 1 Samuel 16:11-13

Do you know how long the children of Israel were wandering in the wilderness?

The answer is 40 years.

Did you know that 10 x 40 years is 400 years?

It was 400 years after God freed the children of Israel from the land of Egypt, that they rejected God as their King, and so God gave them Saul as their first king.

Do you know how long Saul reigned as king?

40 years.

After Saul, God gave them David as king.

Do you know how long David reigned as king?

40 years.

After David, God gave them Solomon as king.

Do you know how long Solomon reigned as king?

40 years again.

Do you think that God has a message in the number 40?

Definitely!

The number 40 indicates a time of testing.

After God liberated them from the land of Egypt:

400 years went by (1 Samuel 16:1-13)

God tested them, and they failed the test miserably.

So God gave them Saul as king.

Saul was an unsaved man, and the Bible records that he died unsaved.

But long before Saul died, God spoke in I Sam 16, beginning at verse 1,

1 Samuel 16:1
And the LORD said unto Samuel, How long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? Fill thine horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Jesse the Bethlehemite: for I have provided me a king among his sons.

1 Samuel 16:2
And Samuel said, How can I go? If Saul hear it, he will kill me. And the LORD said, Take an heifer with thee, and say, I am come to sacrifice to the LORD.

1 Samuel 16:3
And call Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will shew thee what thou shalt do: and thou shalt anoint unto me him whom I name unto thee.

1 Samuel 16:4
And Samuel did that which the LORD spake, and came to Bethlehem. And the elders of the town trembled at his coming, and said, Comest thou peaceably?

1 Samuel 16:5
And he said, Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice unto the LORD: sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice.

1 Samuel 16:6
And it came to pass, when they were come, that he looked on Eliab, and said, Surely the LORD’S anointed is before him.

1 Samuel 16:7
But the LORD said unto Samuel, Look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for the LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the LORD looketh on the heart.

1 Samuel 16:8
Then Jesse called Abinadab, and made him pass before Samuel. And he said, Neither hath the LORD chosen this.

1 Samuel 16:9
Then Jesse made Shammah to pass by. And he said, Neither hath the LORD chosen this.

1 Samuel 16:10
Again, Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. And Samuel said unto Jesse, The LORD hath not chosen these.

1 Samuel 16:11
And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse,Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither.

1 Samuel 16:12
And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he.

1 Samuel 16:13
Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.

Is it not clear from the reading of this passage that:

God Chose David? (Ezekiel 37:21-25)

The name David plays a very significant role throughout the Bible.

Ever since the Fall of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, God made known that the Son of God was to become incarnate and become the Seed of the Woman, because no one else than a divine Person could bruise the head of Satan.

But now it pleased God to announce that particular person in all the tribes of Israel from which Christ was to come:

He would be a descendant of David.

And David was not only the ancestor of Christ, but he would be personally a picture or a type of Christ in all the Old Tetament. and the New Testament.

For example, we find that God says here in Ezekiel 37:21-25

Ezekiel 37:21
And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will take the children of Israel from among the heathen, whither they be gone, and will gather them on every side, and bring them into their own land:

Ezekiel 37:22
And I will make them one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king to them all: and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all:

Ezekiel 37:23
Neither shall they defile themselves any more with their idols, nor with their detestable things, nor with any of their transgressions: but I will save them out of all their dwelling places, wherein they have sinned, and will cleanse them: so shall they be my people, and I will be their God.

(But we know that the only time cleansing took place, was at the cross.)

Ezekiel 37:24
And David my servant (shall be) king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd: they shall also walk in my judgments, and observe my statutes, and do them.

Ezekiel 37:25
And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, even they, and their children, and their children’s children for ever: and my servant David (shall be) their prince for ever.

In these verses God is not talking about some future Jewish millennial kingdom here on this earth,but God is speaking about a Kingdom where we will dwell forever.

That is the Kingdom of God, or the Kingdom of Christ.

And that is a spiritual kingdom in which we dwell now already and in the future as well.

But in this passage in Ezekiel God says that David will be our King.

Obviously, when the name David is substituted for Christ, God teaches us here that David is representing Christ.

That is an important clue to use, when we interpret those passages like 1 Samuel 16.

Behold, he keepeth the sheep (1 Samuel 16:11-12, John 10:11, John 10:28)

1 Samuel 16:11
And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither.

David was a shepherd, and he had a shepherd’s heart.

When a lion and a bear came to steal one of his sheep, David killed the lion and the bear.

David risked his life to save one sheep, because not one may be lost.

Does that not remind you of another Shepherd, who is called the Good Shepherd?

John 10:11
I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.

John 10:28
And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish; neither shall any (man) pluck them out of my hand.

In other words: Not one may be lost.

That is the concern of a Shepherd’s heart.

David had a shepherd’s heart.

David cared for his sheep as for his own children.

But was David born with such a shepherd’s heart?

No!

Like every one of us, David was born with a heart that was in rebellion against God.

Then Who gave David such a shepherd’s heart?

God gave David a new heart.

There is no other way for anyone to receive a new heart.

Jesus said: “Except a man be born from above, he cannot see the Kingdom of God.”

God raised up David, and by the grace of God David received a new heart.

David was born in Bethlehem. The Lord Jesus Christ was also born in Bethlehem.

The name David means “Beloved”, and Christ is called God’s “Beloved”.

David was anointed by Samuel, and the name Christ means, “Anointed”.

We read in 1 Samuel 16:12,

1 Samuel 16:12
And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he.

What is the meaning of “ruddy”?

It means “red”.

God says in Genesis 25:25 that Esau was “red” when he was born.

That word “red” in Genesis 25:25 is exactly the same word as in: David was “ruddy”.

But that Hebrew word “red” or “ruddy” is derived from the Hebrew word “Adam”, which has been translated “red” or “man”.

Therefore, the analogy is that David was “ruddy” or “red”, and Christ became “man”.

Moreover, David was:

A Man After God’s Own Heart (I Samuel 13:14, Acts 13:21-23)

Saul was an unsaved king, and it showed early in his reign.

In the second year of Saul’s reign he offered a burnt offering, because he could not wait for the prophet Samuel.

Only a priest or a prophet could offer a burnt offering, but not a king.

Saul had no excuse; Saul should have waited for Samuel.

Therefore God said through the prophet Samuel, in 1 Samuel 13:14,

1 Samuel 13:14
But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him to be captain over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the LORD commanded thee.

Many years later the prophet Samuel anointed David, who was that man after God’s own heart.

In fact, David was not yet born when Samuel uttered this prophecy to Saul.

God speaks about David in the Acts of the Apostles, in chapter 13.

In Acts 13 God first speaks about Saul, and then God says that He raised up David, and then He raised up Christ from the line of David.

God says in Acts 13:21-23,

Acts 13:21
And afterward they desired a king: and God gave unto them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the space of forty years.

Acts 13:22
And when he had removed him, he raised up unto them David to be their king; to whom also he gave testimony, and said, I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, which shall fulfill all my will.

Acts 13:23
Of this man’s seed hath God according to his promise raised unto Israel a Saviour, Jesus:

How is it that God says: “I have found David”?

Was David hiding in the bushes and God found him there by accident?

No, that is not how it went!

According to various passages of the Bible, this was the scenario:

First God chose David from before the foundation of the world,

then God raised up David, and then God said: “I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart.”

“A man after mine own heart”.

Man looks on the outward appearance, but God looks on the heart.

That is a very solemn and searching statement.

God also looks on our heart.

What does He see in us?

Is it a heart that has been purified by the Lord Jesus?

Is it a heart that loves Him above all?

Or is it a heart that is still desperately wicked?

Only you know the condition of your own heart.

The name David means “Beloved”. David was:

Beloved of God; Christ was of the seed of David (Romans 1:7, Jeremiah 33:22)

And Christ was also called “Beloved Son”.

Who else is called “Beloved of God”?

The word “beloved” is sprinkled throughout the Old Testament and the New Testament.

Specifically I would like to bring up only one verse, which is Romans 1:7,

Romans 1:7
To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called (to be) saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

In this Letter to the Romans, all the believers in Rome are called saints, and they also are called “beloved of God”.

Let me take this one step further:

All God’s elect are “beloved of God”.

All God’s elect are like David:

They are all people after God’s own heart.

Just like God did not find David accidentally, so God did not find us accidentally.

First God raised up David, and then God said: “I have found David a man after mine own heart.”

First God raises up each one of His elect, and then God says: “Rejoice with Me, for I have found My sheep which was lost.”

God says that “Jesus Christ our Lord was made of the seed of David according to the flesh.”

Therefore, one of the names of Christ is “the Seed of David”, or “Son of David”.

The Bible says that Christ identified Himself so intimately with His elect that He could take upon Himself the sins of all His elect, and pay for their sins on the cross.

So intimately was Christ identified with us, that we too are named the seed of David.

God says in Jeremiah 33:22,

Jeremiah 33:22
As the host of heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured: so will I multiply the seed of David my servant, and the Levites that minister unto me.

All the elect of God are here called “the seed of David”, including all the saints who were born before David.

God can make this statement, because David is representing Christ.

What a great comfort this is for the saints, because we are called “the seed of David”, and therefore we cannot lose that identity.

That is how intimately we are joined to Christ, forever.

David Was Anointed (1 Samuel 16:13, Psalm 2:6-7, Acts 13:33)

In the Old Testament only prophets and priests and kings were anointed.

If you were not born from the line of Aaron, you had no chance of ever being a priest, legitimately.

If you were not born from the line of David, you had no chance of ever being a king, legitimately.

Can you see that God was setting up examples that salvation is entirely by grace alone?

If you are not born an eagle, you will never fly like an eagle.

Here is the beginning of the kingly line:

1 Samuel 16:13
Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward.

David was anointed to be the next king over Israel.

This reminds us of the day when Christ was anointed King of Kings.

When was that? God speaks about that in Psalm 2:6-7,

Psalms 2:6-7
Yet have I set my King upon my holy hill of Zion. I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto Me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten Thee.

God speaks here about the Lord Jesus Christ.

When was “this day”?

God answered this question in the New Testament when God said in Acts 13:33,

Acts 13:33
God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; as it is also written in the second psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.

Therefore, God clearly links the resurrection of the Lord Jesus with Psalm 2:7, “this day have I begotten Thee”.

That is why the Lord Jesus Christ is called “the First Begotten of the Dead”.

When the Lord Jesus appeared to the Disciples after His resurrection He said: “All authority is given unto Me in heaven and on earth”.

This does not mean that the Second Person of the Triune God had no power before He came to earth, but it means that now in His glorified body He was crowned King of Kings.

Let’s go to Psalm 23. Perhaps you remember the words that God wrote through the pen of David:

Thou anointest my head with oil (Psalm 23:5)

God did that literally for David.

Psalm 23:5
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

Let’s spend some time on this verse.

Can we apply this verse to ourselves?

Has God anointed our head with oil, in the spiritual sense?

We know that only prophets, priests and kings were anointed.

Do we qualify?

Yes, indeed we qualify.

God explains that since Pentecost all Believers are now appointed as prophets to proclaim the Word of God into all the world.

We do not bring new messages from God, like the Old Testament prophets did, but we bring the Word of God that is written in the Bible, because God’s message has been completed.

The New Testament believers are also called priests and kings, like you heard me say this morning from Revelation 1:6,

Revelation 1:6
And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

Amen means: So be it.

So that settles it. We have been anointed like prophets, priests and kings.

But when we look at David’s anointing, it was only a ceremony in our eyes.

In fact, it was only a ceremony in God’s eyes.

Today the Lord has prepared a table before us: A Communion Table.

It is only a ceremony in our eyes.

In fact, it is only a ceremony in God’s eyes.

But God designed ceremonies to our comfort.

God designed ceremonies to teach us about signs and shadows.

Through ceremonies God teaches us the difference between the shadow and the substance.

And through ceremonies God is testing us if we have learned our lessons, and can we now distinguish between the shadow and the substance?

Do we understand the ceremony clearly, or will we fail the test?

The bread and the grape juice do not magically turn into the flesh and blood of the Lord Jesus Christ.

We do not contribute to our salvation by physically partaking of the Communion Table, because then salvation would depend on us, rather than on God alone.

We do not contribute to our sanctification by physically partaking of the Communion Table either, because our sanctification also is 100% from God.

Remember, “It is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of His good pleasure”.

If we believe that Water Baptism or the Lord’s Supper is making any contribution to our salvation, or to our sanctification, then we have substituted our works for the grace of God.

That is an insult to God.

Why then do we celebrate the Lord’s Supper?

We do it in remembrance of Him!

It is a Memorial to the awful death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ.

It is a Memorial to glorify the work of the Lord Jesus Christ on the cross.

It is a Memorial to the complete forgiveness of our sins through the work of Christ.

It is a Memorial to the great love, which God has for us, unworthy sinners.

It is a Memorial that we have become sons of God entirely by the grace of God.

It is a Memorial that we can truly say: “My cup runneth over”.

By Alfred J. Chompff

~ by Test All Things on April 29, 2009.

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